By Vera P. Moutafchieva
Publication via Moutafchieva, Vera P.
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Extra resources for Agrarian Relations in the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th Centuries
For example, the raiyye from certain villages in the vakiJ of ~ehabeddin Pa§a in the Plovdiv district paid only one tax-ispenqe-to the sipahi. 142 Also, in the sixteenth century, another five villages were the vakiJ of Thrahim Pa§a. One of them, the village of Korova, paid a set part of its taxes to the sipahi-' 'his raiyye taxes are a timar to the sipahi," we read in the inventory, "and its title belongs to the vakif" 143 The status of the population of Gaglayik, a vakiJ of Murad IT, was even more complex.
The above mentioned differences between the nominal and the real income of the timar should always be borne in mind when calculating the size of timars, as official documents usually give the nominal amount, 30 AGRARIAN RELATIONS IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE which was usually less than the real amount. So that the ratio between nominal and real timar incomes can be seen, a comparative table of the two amounts has been set out below. Nominal income Real income From 0 to 1,000 akge 7 13 From 1,000 to 2,000 akr;e 28 23 From 2,000 to 3,000 akr;e 46 30 From 3,000 to 4,000 akr;e 45 48 From 4,000 to 5,000 akr;e 25 29 From 5,000 to 6,000 akr;e 21 25 From 6,000 to 7,000 akr;e 11 14 From 7,000 to 8,000 akr;e 7 11 From 8,000 to 9,000 akr;e 6 8 From 9,000 to 10,000 akr;e 7 3 From 10,000 tOe 11 ,000 akr;e 1 1 From 11 ,000 to 12,000 akr;e 2 4 From 12,000 to 13,000 akr;e 0 1 From 13,000 to 14,000 akr;e 0 0 ·2 From 14,000 to 15,000 akr;e 0 Over 15,000 akr;e 1 3 This table makes obvious the amounts by which timar incomes exceeded the set nominal income, and that some of the timars of 3 ,000 akr;e had in fact been included with those of from 4,000 to 10,000 akr;e.
The gedik timars were not available to ordinary sipahis. , their obligations were very few. loo Finally, the most important division of the timars in the empire was into free (serbest) and not free gayr-z serbest). The division in question is an expression of the specific feudal heirarchy that existed within the timar system. 102 The timars of the sipahis with the rank of private, with the exception of the zaim, were considered to be tied. In practice, the differences between these two main categories lay in the distribution of the feudal rent.