Biochemistry

Advanced concepts of energy transformation in metabolism by Shay Carlton

By Shay Carlton

This ebook offers with complex ideas of strength Transformation in Metabolism Biochemistry. summary: This publication bargains with complicated recommendations of strength Transformation in Metabolism Biochemistry

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The two other electrons sequentially pass across the protein to the Qi site where the quinone part of ubiquinone is reduced to quinol. A proton gradient is formed by two quinol (4H+4e-) oxidations at the Qo site to form one quinol (2H+2e-) at the Qi site. (in total six protons are translocated: two protons reduce quinone to quinol and four protons are released from two ubiquinol molecules). The bc1 complex does not 'pump' protons, but helps build the proton gradient by an asymmetric absorption/release of protons.

When bacteria grow in anaerobic environments, the terminal electron acceptor is reduced by an enzyme called a reductase. In mitochondria the terminal membrane complex (Complex IV) is cytochrome oxidase. Aerobic bacteria use a number of different terminal oxidases. For example, E. coli does not have a cytochrome oxidase or a bc1 complex. Under aerobic conditions, it uses two different terminal quinol oxidases (both proton pumps) to reduce oxygen to water. Anaerobic bacteria, which do not use oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor, have terminal reductases individualized to their terminal acceptor.

In chloroplasts, light drives the conversion of water to oxygen and NADP+ to NADPH and a transfer of H+ ions. NADPH is used as an electron donor for carbon fixation. In mitochondria, it is the conversion of oxygen to water, NADH to NAD+ and succinate to fumarate that drives the transfer of H+ ions. While some bacteria have electron transport chains similar to those in chloroplasts or mitochondria, other bacteria use different electron donors and acceptors. Both the respiratory and photosynthetic electron transport chains are major sites of premature electron leakage to oxygen, thus being major sites of superoxide production and drivers of oxidative stress.

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