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Reviews that pressure can produce myriad health and wellbeing results, and those results can happen themselves as indicators and prerequisites just like those who veterans document.
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Extra resources for A Review of the Scientific Literature As It Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses, Volume 4: Stress (Gulf War Illnesses Series)
Miller and Rahe, 1997). Some of the characteristics that influence the stressfulness of an event include its intensity, chronicity, and complexity (Paterson and Neufeld, 1987) as well as its novelty, ambiguity, unpredictability, and uncontrollability (Averill, 1973; Mineka and Henderson, 1985; Thompson, 1981). At the same time, whether or not individuals perceive a given set of circumstances as stressful depends upon their own life experiences as well as their personal, social, and biological resources and vulnerabilities.
Rapid heart rate, increased perspiration, gastrointestinal motility) that may be experienced as symptomatic of ill health. Chronic activation of these systems is believed to enhance vulnerability to cardiovascular, metabolic, immune-related, and other diseases. Behavioral responses to stress can also heighten risk of illness. Individuals under stress are more likely to engage in behaviors with significant ramifications for health, including poor eating and sleeping habits and consumption of alcohol and other substances.
Even in community samples, somatic symptoms are common, with lifetime prevalence rates of 37 percent for joint pain, 31 percent for back pain, 25 percent for headache and 24 percent for fatigue (Kroenke and Price 1993). These studies are not fully comparable to the CCEP program, however, since Gulf War veterans tend to be younger and more likely to be male than are patient and community samples. , Hyams, Wignall, and Roswell, 1996). For example, during the Civil War, DaCosta evaluated 300 soldiers, identifying a syndrome called irritable heart that was characterized by diarrhea, dizziness, shortness of breath, sleep disturbance, headache, palpitations and chest pain (DaCosta, 1871).