By Leonard Thompson, Lynn Berat
A number one pupil of South Africa presents a clean and penetrating exploration of that country's background, from the earliest recognized human inhabitation of the sector to the current, focusing totally on the reports of its black population. For this 3rd version, Leonard Thompson provides new chapters that describe the move of energy and the hot South Africa less than the presidencies of Nelson Mandela and Thabo Mbeki.
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Extra info for A History of South Africa
S? Others emphasize internal dynamics, as farming communities became increasingly specialized in their various micro-environments. s" Another unresolved question is whether the first mixed farmers to infiltrate into Southern Africa used iron or whether iron-working reached Africa south of the Limpopo later by diffusion from the north. In central Africa, agriculture and pastoralism seem to have preceded metallurgy. e? 3 1 Private property, previously associated with such small, portable possessions as clothing (made from skins) and weapons (bows and arrows), now included sheep and cattle.
They would have been absent from the rest of Southern Africa, but in arid areas debility and undernutrition would have followed several winter seasons and periods of drought. Kungand who livetoday near the border between northeastern Namibia and Botswana. Kung live in groups that fluctuate between twenty-three and forty members during the year. The nutritious perennial mongongo nut is their staple food, providing one-third of their food supply, while other plants provide another one-third and the rest comes from hunting.
The basic social unit was the nuclear 'family,but several families usually formed bands numbering between twenty and eighty people. These bands were not closed, reproducing entities. People identified 'with members of other bands who spoke the same language and lived in neighboring territories in the same general environment. They occupied caves or camps constructed of portable materials and moved from one watering, foraging, and hunting area to another as the seasons dictated. As in other preindustrial societies, there was a division of labor between women, who stayed close to the campsite and were responsible for childcare and most of the work of collecting edible plants, and men, who were the hunters.