A Guide to the SQL Standard by C. J. Date

By C. J. Date

The former version of this ebook verified itself because the such a lot entire and comprehensible therapy of the SQL commonplace in most cases to be had. Many adjustments have happened within the SQL criteria international due to the fact that variation used to be released, even if: an immense new part, the Call-Level Interface (SQL/CLI), used to be further in 1995. one other significant new part, the chronic saved Modules characteristic (SQL/PSM), is nearing of completion and is because of be further to the traditional in past due 1996 or early 1997. the unique 1992 usual itself has been considerably replaced and corrected in the course of the booklet of 2 vast Technical Corrigenda, one in 1994 and one in 1996. All of those adjustments are mirrored during this Fourth version. previous variants of this ebook confirmed a convention of cautious, transparent, and actual clarification of complicated technical fabric. This new version maintains that culture.

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We can immediately see two differences between the structure of a row containing only fixed-length columns and a row that also contains variable-length columns. First, the fixedlength columns are grouped together separate from the variable-length columns, which are also grouped together. Second, there are more overhead bytes. Looking at the structure, the first status byte will now have a bit set to specify that variablelength columns are present in the row. After the two status bytes the next two bytes hold a number representing the length of the fixed data in the row followed by the fixed data, the two-byte field holding the number of columns, and the NULL bitmap.

But first of all, now that we have discussed databases, it is time to introduce the BankingDB database used in this book. 14 The BankingDB database The BankingDB database is very simple. It consists of just three tables, which are created with the following Transact-SQL syntax: CREATE TABLE customers ( customer_no INT customer_fname CHAR(20) customer_lname CHAR(20) customer_notes CHAR(400) ) CREATE TABLE accounts ( account_no INT customer_no INT branch_no INT balance MONEY account_notes CHAR(400) ) CREATE TABLE branches ( branch_no INT branch_name CHAR(60) branch_address CHAR(400) managers_name CHAR(60) ) NOT NOT NOT NOT NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL NOT NOT NOT NOT NOT NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL NOT NOT NOT NOT NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL The BankingDB database has customers who have one or many bank accounts.

A heap is a table that does not have a clustered index and, therefore, the pages are not linked by pointers. The IAM pages are the only structures that link the pages in a table together. Finally, our last special page is a PFS page. A PFS page holds the information that shows whether an individual page has been allocated to table, index, or some other structure. It also documents how free an allocated page is. For each page, the PFS has a bitmap recording whether the page is empty, 1 percent to 50 percent full, 51 percent to 80 percent full, 81 percent to 95 percent full, or 96 percent to 100 percent full.

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