Environmental Studies

A Dictionary of Environmental History by Ian D. Whyte

By Ian D. Whyte

Professor Whyte's A Dictionary of Environmental heritage provides in one quantity a complete reference paintings protecting the previous 12,000 years of the Earth's environmental background. An advent to the self-discipline is by way of virtually 1,000 entries masking key terminology, occasions, areas, dates, themes, in addition to the key personalities within the heritage of the self-discipline. Entries variety from shorter genuine money owed to massive mini-essays on key subject matters and matters. totally cross-referenced with an intensive bibliography, this pioneering paintings presents an authoritative but available source that would shape crucial examining for lecturers, practitioners and scholars of environmental background and similar disciplines.

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The distinctive landscape and traditional lifestyle of the islanders has attracted many visitors and commentators, including Robert J. M. Synge’s The Aran Islands (1907) (Waddell et al. 1994). Arctic sea ice Satellite records are available from 1979 and show that the long-term trend in the extent of the ice is downwards. In the five years to 2009 the five lowest summer extents have been recorded. 7 million km2 less than in 1970, even though the cloudier summer of 2009 preserved more ice (Kwok & Rothrock, 2009).

Tourist development came at an environmental cost. Forest clearance to create ski runs and high-level access roads scarred the landscape, increasing runoff, erosion, the risk of flooding and avalanche damage. Resorts have caused traffic congestion and pollution and increased demand for water and waste disposal. The proliferation of ski runs, roads, tracks and paths damaged alpine meadows, threatening many plant species. The need to keep resorts operating all year to make them pay led to the expansion of summer activities like walking, mountain biking, riding and white water rafting, which spread the landscape impacts of tourism even further.

The irrigation systems were badly designed, inefficient and poorly maintained. 50–60% of the water never reached the fields, being lost by seepage and evaporation. The cotton crop required half the available water resources of the two river basins (Glantz 1999). Overintensive cropping led to a fall in soil fertility, which was tackled by increased use of fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides. When these were flushed into the Aral Sea they caused ecological complications. Some reduction of the sea had been expected in the original irrigation plan but impacts on local climate and ecosystems were underestimated.

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