By Hiroaki Misawa, Saulius Juodkazis
An intensive advent to 3D laser microfabrication know-how, major readers from the basics and conception to its a number of powerful purposes, akin to the iteration of tiny items or third-dimensional constructions in the bulk of obvious fabrics. The e-book additionally provides new theoretical fabric on dielectric breakdown, permitting a greater figuring out of the variations among optical harm on surfaces and contained in the bulk, in addition to a glance into the long run. Chemists, physicists, fabrics scientists and engineers will locate this a helpful resource of interdisciplinary wisdom within the box of laser optics and nanotechnology.
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Extra resources for 3D laser microfabrication : principles and applications
5 micron). 67 10–12 s. The shock wave leaves the heat wave behind at the time when electrons transfer their energy to ions. This time comprises ten = (men)–1 = 200 picoseconds. 22 T0. 74 1011 Pa. This pressure considerably exceeds the cold silica modulus which is of the order of P0 ~ 1010 Pa. Therefore, a strong shock wave emerges, which compresses the material up to a density q ~ q0 (c + 1)/(c – 1) ~ 2q0 (c ~ 3 is the adiabatic constant for cold glass). 4 Laser–Solid Interaction at High Intensity The material behind the shock wavefront can be compressed and transformed to another phase state in such high-pressure conditions.
Therefore, Eq. (3) can be used to express the IPSF under the scalar approximation, which is equivalent to neglecting the depolarization effect of the objective. 2 Spherical Aberration Compensation by a Tube-length Change assumption holds for a maximum convergence angle of less than 45 degrees . 4, the vectorial effect does not alter the energy within the 3D IPSF appreciably. In this chapter, we focus our discussions on objectives which satisfy a so-called “sine condition”. If the projection of a ray at a radius of r and the focal length of the objective satisfy r ¼ f sinh, we call this objective satisfies sine condition .
I) We know how the transition from laser–cold solid interaction to laser–plasma interaction occurs. Optically induced breakdown in transparent dielectrics is the major mechanism leading to plasma formation, which results in strong laser absorption and high concentration of energy in the material. It is well established that the interplay between electron avalanche and multi-photon ionization is the major factor leading to breakdown. The measured threshold for breakdown inside many transparent dielectrics of ~ 1012 W cm–2 is in close agreement with the theoretical calculations that take 31 32 2 Laser–Matter Interaction Confined Inside the Bulk of a Transparent Solid into account the avalanche and multi-photon ionization along with modifications of optical properties during the interaction.