By John G. Bartlett MD
Designed to supply easy access to criteria of deal with infectious affliction via targeting choice, right doses, expenditures, and unwanted side effects of antimicrobial brokers, the 2005-2006 notebook of Infectious affliction Therapy attracts largely from strategies made through the facilities for sickness regulate and Prevention, the scientific Letter on medicines and Therapeutics, and from legitimate statements of revered scientific societies. Tabular fabric has been up-to-date to incorporate all newly licensed antibiotics, in addition to new concepts for management.
This variation contains topical concerns akin to MRSA (USA three hundred strain), Avian influenza, Acinetobacter Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and bioterrorism. It additionally comprises the recent guidance for pyogenic meningitis, diabetic foot infections, healthcare linked pneumonia, surgical prophylaxis, fungal infections, bacteruria, and administration of infections linked to foreign travel.
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Additional info for 2005-2006 Pocket Book of Infectious Disease Therapy
Initial dose is not modified in renal failure. 2. Adjustments in subsequent doses for renally excreted drugs may be accomplished by a) giving the usual maintenance dose at extended intervals, usually three half-lives (extended interval method); b) giving reduced doses at the usual intervals (dose reduction method); or c) a combination of each. 3. Adjustments in dose are usually based on creatinine clearance that may be estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault equation (Nephron 16:31, 1976). 85 Pitfalls and notations with calculations follow.
Intermedius) Oral-dental, pulmonary, female genital tract infections Metronidazole; clindamycin; beta-lactam-BLI (7) Imipenem/meropenem cefoxitin; tigecycline Bartonella bacilliformis Bartonellosis (Oroya fever) Chloramphenicol 2 g/d × 7 d Doxycycline; ampicillin Bartonella henselae (PIDJ 1998;17:447) Cat-scratch disease Azithromycin Ciprofloxacin, sulfa-trimethoprim; gentamicin; rifampin Bartonella henselae and B. 36 Burkholderia mallei Glanders Tetracycline + streptomycin Streptomycin + chloramphenicol; imipenem Burkholderia pseudomallei (Pseudomonas pseudomallei) (CID 1999;29:381) Meliodosis Septicemia Ceftazidime (120 mg/kg/d up to 6 g/d by continuous infusion (AAC 39:2356, 1995) ± TMP-SMX (40 mg/kg/d trimethoprim) (CID 2001;33:29) Sulfa-trimethoprim + chloramphenicol + doxycycline; imipenem/meropenem; Note: TMPSMX resistance in Thailand Localized TMP-SMX; amoxicillin-clavulanate Calymmatobacterium granulomatis (MMWR 2002;51 RR-6) Granuloma inguinale Donovanosis Doxycycline 200 mg/d ≥ 21 days TMP-SMX 1 DS/d × ≥ 21 days Tetracycline; chloramphenicol; sulfisoxazole Ciprofloxacin 750 mg bid ≥ 21 days; erythromycin 500 mg bid × ≥ 21 days; cipro + gentamicin Campylobacter fetus Septicemia, vascular infections, meningitis Imipenem; 3rd gen cephalosporin Campylobacter jejuni (CID 2001;32:331) Diarrhea (see p 268) Erythromycin 500 mg bid × 5 d or azithromycin Tetracycline (4); fluoroquinolone (6) Capnocytophaga canimorus (CDC group DF-2) (AAC 1988;32:78) Dog and cat bites Amoxicillin; Penicillin G Doxycycline; amoxicillinclavulanate; fluoroquinolone (6); macrolides (8); cefotaxime, ceftizoxime or ceftriaxone, imipenem/meropenem; vancomycin, clindamycin Bacteremia (asplenia) Clindamycin; penicillin Cephalosporins (3rd generation) (5); imipènem/meropenem; fluoroquinolones (6); beta-lactamBLI (7) Periodontal disease Clindamycin; amoxicillin-clavulanic acid; erythromycin; doxycycline Bactermia in neutropenic host Clindamycin; imipènem/meropenem/ertapenem Beta-lactam-BLI (7); fluoroquinolone (6) Endocarditis Penicillin ± aminoglycoside Cephalosporin (5) ± aminoglycoside (1) Chlamydia pneumoniae (now classified as Chlamydophilia pneumoniae Pneumonia (see p 255) Doxycycline, erythromycin or clarithromycin × 1014 d; Telithromycin × 7-10 d; azithromycin 3-5 d Fluoroquinolone (6) × 10-14 d Chlamydia psittaci Chlamydia trachomatis (see pp 293-294) (MMWR 2002;51:RR-6) Psittacosis (see p 255) Urethritis, cervicitis, PID, epididymitis, urethral syndrome Doxycycline Doxycycline (200 mg/d × 7 d); azithromycin (1 g po × 1) Chloramphenicol Erythromycin (500 mg qid × 7d); ofloxacillin (300 mg bid × 7d); amoxicillin Lymphogranuloma venereum Doxycycline 200 mg/d × 21 d Erythromycin 500 mg qid × 21 d Trachoma Azithromycin 20 mg/kg × 1 (CID 1997;24:363) Doxycycline 200 mg/d (oral + topical) × 14 d; a sulfonamide (oral + topical) Capnocytophaga ochracea (CDC group DF1) (JID 1985;151:140) Cardiobacterium sp.
Griseofulvin: May need dose reduction Isoniazid: Use with caution and monitor hepatic function for mild-moderate hepatic disease; acute liver disease or history of INHassociated hepatic injury is contraindication to INH. Itraconazole: Two-fold increase in half-life with cirrhosis; give with caution. Linezolid: No dose adjustment. Metronidazole: Modify dose for severe hepatic failure, although specific guidelines are not provided; peak serum levels with 500 mg doses are 10-20 μg/mL. Mezlocillin: Reduce dose by 50% or double the dosing interval.